TU Berlin

Department of Energy EngineeringEconomics of Grid Operators

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Grid Operation Management


One of the main challenges for the future power systems is to design an appropriate electricity market that facilitates both trading and system integration of new technologies. In order to integrate a larger share of renewable energy sources (RES) into the system, as well as other developments such as smart grids and energy storage, the power system needs to be more flexible, which impacts the design of the electricity markets.   One of the focus points of this course is congestion management, which is the key to mitigate the anticipated network bottlenecks. These congestions in the transmission network occur due to high penetration levels of RES. RES also have a significant impact on the balancing of the system due to their fluctuating nature, which transmission system operators (TSOs) need to handle. Another focus of this course is balancing and ancillary services, which TSOs provide a trading platform for. Network codes define the requirements and guidelines for the different stakeholders participating in such platforms. When done correctly, this increases the efficiency of the market platforms and enables the integration of new technologies in the system, which enhances the system flexibility to host more RES.   A further important topic is interconnections and capacity calculation. Network operators will have to find ways of making more transmission capacity available. Introducing cross-border interconnections also presents future challenges for electricity markets. Therefore, developing processes to calculate cross-border transmission capacity is critical, such as coordinating regional assessments of net transfer capacity, and determining bilateral net transfer capacity. Finally, regulation of energy utilities will be discussed, which includes the regulation, design, implementation, and refinement of tariffs, as well as inter-TSO compensation mechanisms that could cover costs linked to cross-border flows.

Dr. Tarek Fawzy - Expert Power System Operation and Security, Elia Grid International GmbH


Dr. Tarek Fawzy is an expert in power system operation and security at Elia Grid International GmbH Company (since 2015). He is responsible for contingency and load flow analysis, grid impact studies, static and dynamic stability studies, among others.

Previously, he was a System Engineer at SMA Solar Technology AG for 7 years. He obtained his Ph.D. from Technische Universität Braunschweig in 2014, and published many papers related to photovoltaic plants.



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